2016 TransPack Forum SPEAKERS
Below is a preview of the 2016 TransPack Forum Speakers. They are listed in alphabetical order.
Changing Consumer Habits and Impact of Digital
Technology on Consumer Packaged Goods Industry
Consumer habits have changed dramatically and businesses need to mirror those changes with adaptations of their own. When a business rushes into a technology solution, the quality can suffer and the reaction may not meet the need. Ultimately the bottom line takes a triple hit from the consumer not purchasing as well as time and money spent on the solution. The ideal adoption path includes technology implementation in many facets, so that the processes and information are available when a reaction is required. Millennials are the first generation to be “native” to a ubiquitously tech-enabled world as well as non-Millennials have wholeheartedly embraced this new world. Digital technologies must be consistently adopted and organizations empowered to engage with technologies because there is no single silver bullet solution that is the answer, but rather a mix of technologies and strategy specific to each company.
This presentation seeks to provide unique insights and applicable technologies into what is for some an exponential rise of tumultuous trends and technology but for the Millennials is just another day. The news is good though in that enabling new technology can lead to an exponential rise in productivity, speed, project ROI and competitive advantage. In terms of package development, specialized PLM platforms can capture and accelerate facets of the workflow process which feeds into data analysis capabilities which continually improve many areas of the business. Digital automation, data capture, analytics and other tools can affect design, QA, testing and validation for the benefit all stakeholders involved. One of the more exciting areas entitled predictive or self-learning technologies for the consumer behavior tracking and integration into IT systems will be explained and explored. Lastly the Internet Of Things or IOT includes connected devices, smart technologies for data gathering and subsequently analytics which aide in decision making and development for increased rapidity and confidence on the path to market.
Biography: Education: Master in Thermal Engineering NIT , Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering. Achievements: Co Founder and Technology Lead at Axiom , Publications in the area of use of Modelling and Simulation for Automotive, Aerospace, Consumer Goods and packaging Verticals.
of a Triboelectric Energy Harvester
in Transport Packaging
For centuries the scientific community has been finding ways to harvest energy from naturally occurring phenomena, such as wind and solar radiation. In the last century, tremendous strides in energy harvesting have been made in tandem with the invention of novel energy harvesting devices.
These devices are able to harvest -energy from processes such as magnetism, thermal radiation, and ocean waves. A few of the most prominent and effective methods for energy harvesting are electromagnetic, piezoelectric, thermoelectric, and triboelectric, all of which utilize polymeric materials, ceramics, and various metals.
Clemson University is in the process of using one of these methods to harvest energy from the motion of transportation, store it, and use it to power sensors that will measure the very same distribution environment from which the energy was harvested.
In this presentation, we will explore the use of a triboelectric energy harvester in a packaging application and demonstrate its use in powering a field data recorder.
Takeaways: Learn about the different energy harvester technologies that could work in packaging. Learn about the feasibility of energy harvester use in distribution packaging. Learn about different applications for energy harvesters in packaging.
Biography: Education: PhD in Mechanical Engineering, MS in Packaging Science, BS in Mechanical Engineering. Activities: ISTA Global Board of Directors, Chair of ISTA's Technical Division. Achievements: ISTA Certified Packaging Laboratory Professional.
Six Degree of Freedom (6DOF) Sensors to Measure
and Model Vehicle and Package Motion
In order to fully quantify dynamic motion and therefore calculate expected package forces, simple vehicle acceleration measurements only tell part of the story. For example, when a vehicle rolls over a pothole, curb or speed bump, wheel impacts can impart rotational motion to the vehicle that may amplify forces transferred to packages. It is possible to more accurately calculate worst case accelerations and forces using angular rate data. This presentation highlights the differences between simple translational motion measured by accelerometers and more complex (6DOF) motion that actually happens in real world transportation exposure. Various methods for quantifying angular motion together with acceleration measurements will be covered with the goal of understanding how to collect and process 6DOF data to aid in designing more effective packaging. State-of-the-art sensing and recording technologies will be reviewed and sample vehicle data will be used to demonstrate the benefits of collecting 6DOF data.
Takeaways: You will gain a better understanding of the role angular motion plays in the dynamic forces encountered in transportation exposure. This knowledge will help you design more effective packaging that protects against real world translational and rotational inputs. Modern sensing and recording systems make it easy to collect valuable 6DOF data and you will come away with knowledge of readily available technologies for making these measurements.
Biography: Education: BS Electronics Engineering Technology, 1986 California State Polytechnic University. Activities: 36 years of testing and data acquisition experi¬ence. He has worked as a principal development engineer on 12 data acquisition systems and numerous 6DOF sensing systems, including several current DTS products. His designs meet the demand for rugged, reliable miniaturized data acquisition products in a wide variety of critical applications including structural and safety testing in automotive and aerospace environments, sports and high-value asset monitoring. Achievements: Earned membership in Tau Alpha Pi, the national engineering honor society while attending Cal Poly Pomona and passed the state examination toward professional engineering certification in 1988. He has been a member of the Society of Automotive Engineers for over 25 years and an active voting member of the SAE Instrumentation Standards Committee for the past 10 years. Served as vice-president and president of Chapter 1 of the SAFE Association, an international aerospace safety organization. Serves as Chairman of the Advisory Board at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff Arizona and manages a volunteer science and astronomy outreach program in Seal Beach.
A Better Contaiment Force Test
Bisha, Sr. Packaging Engineer
Venechuk, Senior Packaging Engineer
The ASTM pull plate method has long been the industry standard test method for measuring containment force on unitized loads. A slightly modified method increases consistency dramatically when testing containment force on loads of unlike size. This presentation provides details on the improved method and shares test data conducted to research its effect.
Jim Bisha Biography: Education: Ph.D. & M.S. in Packaging Science from Virginia Tech, B.S. in Packaging Science from R.I.T. Activities: Member of the ASTM D10 Packaging Committee and ISTA Test Series Group.
Luke Venechuk Biography: Education: BS in Packaging, Michigan State University, School of Packaging. Activities: Vice-Chairman ASTM D10.25 Subcommittee on Palletizing and Unitizing of Loads, Member of IoPP's Transport Packaging Committee.
Optimization of P.O.P. Displays for Transit
A systematic approach to evaluate P.O.P displays containing Consumer Packaged Goods that go into the big box retailers. The selection of correct components becomes crucial to the overall design and profitability of a display. A Holistic approach is utilized to ensure displays are created, designed, tested and arrive at the Retailer as intended.
Biography: Education: Packaging Science, MS, BS, Rochester Institute of Technology. Activities: ASTM D10 Packaging Committee, ISTA’s Test Series Group (TSG). Achievements: I have been around long enough to learn some things ;-) , Dad to three kids.
of Transportation Hazards on Shelf Life
of Packaged Products
The presentation focuses on how transportation can have an adverse effect on the shelf life of packaged food products. It will showcase how by using ISTA test protocols in conjunction with traditional shelf life test protocols, the end user can have a better indication of the actual shelf life of a packaged product as it passes through the supply chain to the store shelves.
Biography: Education: B.S. and M.S. in Packaging Science, Ph.D. in Food Technology all from Clemson University. Activities: ISTA, ASTM, IFT, NIPHLE. Achievements: CPLP - Professional.
Can Transportation Testing Reveal About Stretch
Transportation tests were used to characterize the load containment properties of over 25 commercial stretch wrapped films categorized in three different film categories: general, medium and high performance. The film gauge was purposely decreased with increasing film performance to test claims that thinner high performance films perform as well as thicker general performance films. Results were viewed in light of performance category, film thickness and the amount of film used to wrap the pallet.
Biography: Education: Ph.D. Activities: Member of the ASTM D10 Packaging Committee.
Testing - it's NOT static, it's dynamic!
It has been 5 years since ISTA 6-SAMSCLUB was introduced. The impact of the test to Sam's Club's business is invaluable. What's next in this world that's getting smaller?
Takeaways: Do not trust that one test fits all. Realize that your supply chain may be just unusual enough to require some tweaks with your testing.
Biography: Education: Michigan State University - School of Packaging. Activities: MSU School of Packaging Alumni Association; IoPP (Institute of Packaging Professionals) Member. Achievements: Hall of Fame Inductee at MSU's School of Packaging; Outstanding Alumnus Award, MSU's College of Agriculture and Natural Resources Member of the Year - IoPP 2005; College of Fellows - IoPP.
Pressure Sensitive Label and Tape Adhesiveness Considerations
Jay Gilman, Manager Packaging Services
Thomas Wood, Project Packaging Engineer
The interaction of pressure sensitive adhesive to the outer package can greatly affect performance. This study researches adhesive performance factors including outer surface type, application methods and environmental conditions that affect the bonding strength of the adhesive to the outer package. The study also investigates alternative testing methods for adhesion strength that better simulates how pressure sensitive adhesives are actually applied and used on the outer package.
Takeaways: Gain a better understanding of adhesion materials testing results and apply these principles to improve label and tape performance in shipping environments.
Jay Gilman Biography: Education: BS Packaging Science Rochester Institute of Technology. Activities: Sustainable Packaging Coalition-Packaging Engineering department’s advisory boards at CBU (Christian Brothers University). Achievements: Jay is an expert in the field of package design and testing within the small parcel transportation industry and has received many individual & team awards. Such as prestigious Five Star Award which holds the highest high honor at FedEx.
Wood Biography: Education: BS - Packaging, Michigan
State University. Activities: Member, IoPP, Certified Packaging Professional
(Lifetime), Michigan State University Cosortium of Distribution Packaging
- Member, 1995-2008. Achievements: Two time FedEx Five Star Award Winner.
General Overview of the UN Testing of Packages
For the transport of hazardous goods by all means of transport, industrial packages and casks are tested, certified and used according to worldwide-harmonized regulations. The “UN-Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods” provide specifications, general design requirements, testing- and certification rules for packages. The main principles of the UN-Recommendations are the performance oriented design requirements that have replaced the concept of described packages.
United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
(TDG) has developed the UN Recommendations as a “model regulation”.
of the general design requirements for all types of packages, intermediate
bulk containers (IBCs) and large packages (LPs) is a set of packaging
tests, such as:
Biography: Thomas Goedecke Biography: Education: Bachelor of Science n Foundry Technology, University Duisburg-Essen, Germany. Masters and Ph.D. in Materials Science, Technical University Berlin. Germany. Activities: President of the International Association of Packaging Research Institutes (IAPRI), Member of the German delegation of the UN Committee of Experts for the Transport of Dangerous Goods (TDG), Convenor ISO/CEN WG “Dangerous Goods Packaging”, Member of several national and international standardization working groups, International Safe Transit Association (ISTA) – Director European Division Board, Member of the editorial board of the journal “Packaging Technology and Science” published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., London, Lecturer at the TU Dortmund University.
Cold Weather Shipping and Acclimation: Never Let Them See You Sweat
Bill Green, STSM Packaging Technology
Sanders, Senior Technical Staff Member, Global Logistics
and Corp. Packaging,
The "Polar Vortex" and similar extreme climatic events can have a major effect on supply chains. For instance, taking a frozen machine out of a truck and bringing it into a warm data center. The condensation that naturally forms alarms clients when they see their major investments dripping water. This presentation will examine what IBM did to study this phenomenon and seek ways to mitigate it.
Takeaways: A better understanding of the phenomenon of condensation on large server products and cold weather transportation environments for these high value IT products. Study analysis, results and suggested best practices will be shared on how to limit observed condensation and also ways to increase customer acceptance when it inevitably occurs.
Bill Green Biography: Education: MS Packaging - Michigan State University. Activities: ISTA Member, ASTM D3332 Review Task Group, IoPP Transportation Task Group.
Bob Sanders Biography: Education: BS, Packaging Engineering, MSU 1979. Activities: ISTA (Chair of RTST Team), MH1 Pallet Standards Committee. Achievements: Bob holds Ameristar, Worldstar, and NWPCA Innovation Awards and has several patent disclosures. He is a frequently invited speaker at events like Pack Expo, Virginia Tech Packaging Jamboree, IoPP Educational forums, and previous TransPack conferences.
New Look at Simulation Testing to Replicate Packaging
and Product Damage in the Field
Common ship testing by procedure and off the shelf equipment in many cases is not enough to replicate damage/hazards found in the field. Understanding the environment is critical to product/packaging success. This presentation will provide examples of creative tests and equipment developed from field data and myth busting.
Takeaways: Attendees will gain insight to the thought process, data collection, design, and qualification of new equipment. Specific examples to include basiloid handling equipment and stair testing.
Biography: Education: Ph.D. Packaging Science, Virginia Tech, M.S. and B.S. Packaging Engineering, Indiana State University. Activities: Member of ISTA and IoPP, Instructional faculty at Indiana State University. Achievements: Started a packaging center of excellence at General Electric, developed a packaging consortium team with outside companies, created state of art test facilities and procedures, Six Sigma certified, CPLP.
2015 yielded heavy discussion within our Technical Division on enhancements to current procedures, standardizing requirements for collecting data, eCommerce supply chains, and more. This presentation will provide an overview of current ISTA technical activities and projects as well as how these activities will drive the future of ISTA and pre-shipment testing.
Much Load My Pallet Can Carry?
Properly determining the exact load carrying capacity of pallets is essential to ensure the effectiveness of the supply chain. Multiple testing procedures are published by different organizations that could be used to estimate the load carrying capacity of pallets. The presentation will cover the differences between various ASTM, ISO, and AIAG pallet testing standards, show design requirements required by big box stores and various industries, and show how the load carrying capacity could depend on the types of load carried by the pallet. During the presentation, attendees also learn about how to design pallets for the military and automated warehouses.
Education: MS in Wood Engineering, MS. in Engineering
Management, Ph.D. in Forest Biomaterials
– Defining the Result Not the Path
Typical specification processes by most corrugated users can readily lead to over- or under-packaging and contradictory requirements, because the usual approach doesn’t focus on the performance needs of the end product. We need to consider the different methods by which packaging is specified and the challenges of getting to right-sized, cost effective corrugated packaging.
Takeaways: To gain a deeper understanding of the various approaches for corrugated packaging specifications, and will as a result be able to better communicate their packaging needs to their corrugated suppliers.
Biography: Education: BS: Michigan State University: School of Packaging. Activities: Member of IOPP, ISTA, Various FBA Technical Commitees. Achievements: 20 years of solving problems, numerous patents, several pieces of software development, a generally happy 13 year old son.
Effects of Vibration Stress on Quality of Packaged Grapes (and other fruits) During Transportation
Jongkyoung "JK" Kim, Ph. D., Head Researcher
Hyun Mo Jung, Associate Professor
This study was to examine characteristics of in-transit vibration during the transport of packaged grapes by truck and their possible quality damage due to such vibration stress. First, the truck transport vibrations were measured in terms of the power spectral density for a major freight distribution route of packaged grapes in Korea. With these data, a simulated transportation environment was prepared to carry out vibration impact experiments in an attempt to investigate how far vibration stress gave rise to quality degradation. A comparative study was made between two groups of grapes: grapes under vibration stress and grapes without vibration stress. Both groups of grapes have been treated under cold storage condition (1~2°C, 65~75% RH) for 30 consecutive days. The results showed that the impacted group suffered, in comparison with the non-impacted group, from about 6% more loss in weight, 1.3o Brix more decrease in soluble solids content, and 7 nL/g·hr more increase in ethylene production.
Takeaways: We measured effects of vibration stress on quality of packaged fruits (grapes in this case) under transportation by truck in Korea. Not much research has been done regarding impact of vibration on fruits in the past so we wanted to examine what kinds of quality losses we may expect during the transportation process. By this way, we may compare various packaging techniques and find better protective packaging for certain types of fruits. The results showed that the vibration stress during transportation clearly accelerated the degradation of fruits quality: increase in weight loss, decrease in SSC (soluble solids content), and an increase in ethylene production. Several other cases will be also introduced. This study suggests further studies about developing proper packaging methods to minimize the quality degradation of fruits by vibration stress during transportation.
Jongkyoung "JK" Kim Biography: Education: Ph.D. Packaging from Michigan State University. Activities: Asia-Pacific Division Chair, ISTA. Project Leader for ISO TC122 (Packaging) SC4 (Packaging and the Environment) WG3 (Reuse) and TC122 WG13 (Returnable Transport System), Expert in TC122, 104 (Container), 51 (Pallet) & 204 (Intelligent Transport System). Member of Korea Packaging Professionals. Specialized in reusable packaging system in supply chain.
Hyun Mo Jung Biography: Education: Ph.D. & M.S. in Biosystems Machinery Engineering from Chungnam National University in South Korea, Member of Korea Society of Packaging Science & Technology.
Journey Continues On The Sustainable Highway:
Packaging is the vehicle that connects a supplier’s production line with your own manufacturing process and on into the final user’s hands. Inbound packaging for purchased parts is an area of opportunity to not only impact sustainability but achieve real efficiencies within the supply chain. Building on sustainability papers presented in 2010 and 2013, an experienced packaging engineer from the electronics industry shares lessons learned on the inbound road to sustainability. Case studies and design ideas implementing efficient and sustainable designs for a variety of purchased parts ranging from sheet metal chassis, cabinet doors, to power units and other typical component parts within the electronics industry will be presented.
Takeaways: Design ideas for inbound packaging
Biography: Education: BS Packaging Science Rochester Institute of Technology. Activities: ISTA Sustainability Solutions Division Board Member. Achievements: EMC Innovation Award Winner 2010; Patents for a Disk Drive pack and for a Kit for Shipping an Electrical Cabinet; CPLP-Professional.
Combined With Elevated Temperatures, a
Root Cause of Quality Issues
A case study will be presented with a product involving elevated temperature (product changes phase) inside the container during an international shipment from India, passing by Sri Lanka ending in the United Arab Emirates. The condition allowed resonance frequency in the plastic jar causing disengaged caps. This presentation will show what we did to solve the problems during transport.
Takeaways: Attendees will have a better understanding of the importance of carrying out combined tests using vibration and climatic conditions to achieve higher reliability in laboratory tests.
Biography: Education: Degree in Industrial Engineering from Federal University of Santa Catarina , MBA in Project Management from International Business School (IBE)Activities: Member at Project Management Institute (PMI) and ISTA Global Board of Directors.
Realities of Recycling Packaging Foam
There are many misconceptions about the recyclability of foam packaging cushions. In reality, foam parts are being recycled every day. There are many solutions for thermoplastic foams. Foam packaging cushions are reground and molded back into foam cushions and they are extruded into various solid products. One challenge for consumers wanting to recycle foam is the logistics of getting light weight foam cushions to a location where they can be used. This presentation will include cost effective options and examples of logistically successful recycle solutions.
Biography: Education: Education – BS Chemistry from The University of Texas 1985. Activities: Experience - 5 years Urethane Foam Technical Service for Texaco Chemical and ARCO Chemical. 25 Years Sales experience in Automotive and Protective Packaging Thermoplastics for NOVA Chemicals.
Path Cheerios Take To Your Bowl
Layout the distribution network and handling that different Cheerios packages go through from the manufacturing plant to the consumer’s bowl. Review different package formats used around world and how they are handled. Cheerios represent a dry channel food product.
Takeaways: Understand handling that a dry channel consumer food product travels through in distribution and differences between package platforms and geographies.
Biography: Education: BS Industrial Technology -Packaging from UW Stout. Activities: IoPP - CPP. ISTA ARVD tech rep. Achievements: 36 years of Packaging development experience.
a Packaging Engineer at a Food Manufacturer
in this Omni-Channel World
There was a time when a new product launch was a singular activity, possibly pluralized by flavors and variety. Now it’s a multi-pronged, compound tiered activity with various packaging formats, sizes and configurations. How can we as packaging professionals execute a successful multi-channel launch in this complex world?
Takeaways: Packaging professionals need to have a wider view of the world when going to launch; identify your fronts of engagement, pull your tools from your arsenal, test your armaments, and engage the marketplace!
Biography: Education: B.S. Industrial Technology minor in Packaging, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. Activities: Board Member, Cal Poly Packaging Program Advisory Board; Founder & President, Cal Poly Packaging Alumni Association; Certified Packaging Professional, IoPP.
Quality in the 21st Century
Pallet quality is becoming more important every year especially as more warehouses are automated. This presentation will review the new edition of the ANSI MH1 pallet standard and focus on terminology and variables that effect pallet quality.
Biography: Education: Virginia Tech - Wood Science & Forest Products (PhD, currently enrolled, completed coursework spring 2010). Activities: ANSI - MH1 Chair, Pallet Standard Committee. International Organization of Standardization (ISO) TC51 – Pallet Test Standards – US TAG committee member and ANSI delegate for the United States to TC51.
to be Announced
of High and Normal Performance Stretch
Film on Unitized Load
A pallet load of packages can be stacked into different orientations before being unitized by a stretch wrapping mechanism. Based on previous findings a unitized can be classified according to number of layer protruding from a unitized load, thereby classifying the load as A-Profile, B-Profile, and C-Profile loads. A-Profile loads are stacked to perfectly match the pallet footprint, while B-Profile and C-Profile loads have layers that protrude out and are known as mixed loads. This study makes an attempt to compare the high and normal performance stretch film on load containment of a B-Profile Unitized Load. The hypothesis is that a high performance stretch film which has a thinner gauge compare to a normal performance stretch film will have similar load containment capabilities.
Takeaways: A packaging engineer can reduce the amount of stretch wrap by weight on a unitized load by using high performance stretch wrap film without sacrificing load containment capabilities.
Biography: Education: BS Agriculture Science, MS Food Science, MS Packaging Science, Ph.D. Packaging Science.
Motion in Real Life Ground Shipments
by Truck and Rail – Challenges and Advantages
This presentation will focus on various aspects of a new research project being funded through the ISTA Advocate Research & Value Delivery Program. The presentation will cover the collection of new data, development of new test methods that requires new simulation methods and equipment technology to test packaging systems for multi-axis vibration. In addition to transportation, methodologies to evaluate stability of stacked packages and pallet configurations will be discussed.
Biography: Education: Ph.D., (Ag. Engg) MS, (Packaging), BS (Honors - Mech Engg). Activities: ASTM, IAPRI, ASSE, ASME, ISTA, IOPP, NIPHLE, ISO, WFLO. Achievements: Military Packaging Hall of Fame, ASTM Award of Merit, Fellow IOPP and ASTM.
Test is the Right Test?
If you want “just right packaging” don’t you need just right testing? I submit that just about any test could be the right test. And, I submit that just about any test could be the wrong test. I further submit that the closer we try to get to just right packaging (neither over nor under packaged), the more complete and sophisticated the testing must often be. Having said all that, which test is the right test? I can’t give you a direct answer, but I can tell you how to find it.
Takeaways: You’ll take away a guide to finding the right test. You’ll learn how to better understand test selection and testing in general.
Biography: Education: AST in Electronics and Computer Technology. Course work in Industrial Arts at Millersville University. 23 years OJT. Activities: ISTA and IoPP member. Member of ISTA Testing Council & Global Education Committee, Treasurer, Central Penn Chapter of IoPP. Achievements: ISTA CPLP, Professional Level. IoPP CPP, Lifetime.
chicken or the egg?
The value chain – from collection to consumption (farm to fork) – seems pretty mundane, but as Brian Wagner will demonstrate in this presentation, it’s also where opportunities for cost savings, network optimization, process improvement and sustainability lie.
Education: BS, Packaging, Michigan State University.
Activities: Advisory Board, Cal Poly Packaging, ISTA. Achievements: MSU
Packaging Hall of Fame.
Based Design of Global Supply Chains
Evolving consumer expectations are driving changes of the consumer goods supply chains. To meet these demands for low cost, high quality and rapid delivery supply chains have become extended internationally and they have become more fragile. These supply chains are made up of multiple components including layers of packaging and the various equipment used to move, ship, and store the product. Historically, these components are designed by independent design communities with little consideration of how they mechanically interact. This component design process has led to supply chains operating with significant avoidable cost. An alternative, systematic design process, based on an understanding of how the components of supply chains mechanically interact, will be described, with examples. This leads to a collaboration of designers that reduces supply chain operating cost and improves sustainability, reliability and safety.
Biography: Education: B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees - Colorado State University and Virginia Tech. Activities: Member of The Institute of Packaging Professionals, and the American Society of Testing and Materials D-10 Committee on Packaging. In this latter organization, he was co-chair of the pallet Testing Task Group. He has also served as Head of the U.S. Delegation to the International Standards Organization TC-51 Committee on Pallets, and past Chairman of the MHIA, MH1 Committee on Pallets Standards. Achievements: Published widely on the subject of CAD/CAM design of pallets and containers and the dynamic sequence of palletized unit-loads in shipping environments. Recognized by Modern Materials Handling Magazine as one of the Top Ten Materials Handling Professionals for his revolutionary ideas on the “Systems-Based ” alternative to the existing “component based design” of Global supply chains.